Category Archives: Microsoft

Windows | 3 Methods to “Unauthorised” DHCP server

There’s a couple of ways to “unauthorised” a DHCP server in Active Directory. Sometimes AD can get in a twist and says “the DHCP can’t be authorised” as it’s already been authorised. This could be potentially related to replication time but the steps below will help you check.

Via the DHCP MMC GUI -> Right click -> “Manage Authorised Servers”

Via CLI

Show authorised list (basically what you see in the GUI)

Netsh DHCP show server

Remove entry: (Netsh DHCP delete server ServerFQDN ServerIP address)

Netsh DHCP delete server 2003-dc1.contoso.com 10.1.192.92

Via ASDIedit MMC

Adding DNS Alias | Replacing File Server

When replacing a file server with new server and new name you probably want to keep the old name and add a redirect. Originally, I thought this was a simple “change the DNS IP” and job done but there’s a little bit more to it than just that!

1) Locate OLDSERVER entry in DNS and delete it.

2) If the OLDSERVER server AD object still exists, you need to delete it. Failing to remove the old computer object will result in this error:

Unable to add NEWSERVER.
as an alternate name for the computer.
The error is: Cannot create a file when that file already exists.
The command failed to complete successfully.

3) Run this command to add the server alias:

netdom computername NEWSERVER /add:OLDSERVER

Note: if you have subdomains in use (sub.domain.com) then you need to specifically define this overwise the object will add “oldserver.domain.com” rather than “oldserver.sub.domain.com”

4) Register the machine in DNS

IPConfig /RegisterDNS

5) Run this command to check the aliases are shown on the machine

netdom computername NEWSERVER /enum

6) Final check to show what SPF entries have been created:

setspn -l NEWSERVER

Ref: https://support.microsoft.com/en-gb/help/3181029/smb-file-server-share-access-is-unsuccessful-through-dns-cname-alias

Netdom: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/windows/it-pro/windows-server-2008-R2-and-2008/cc835082(v=ws.10)

Original Post: https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/askpfeplat/2017/06/19/using-computer-name-aliases-in-place-of-dns-cname-records/

Windows | DHCP PowerShell Options (Cheatsheet)

Managing DHCP on DHCP server:

Add-WindowsFeature -Name DHCP –IncludeManagementTools

Managing DHCP on remote host:

Add-WindowsFeature RSAT-DHCP

Powershell DHCP Module:

Import-Module DhcpServer

Get all DHCP servers in AD

Get-DhcpServerInDC

Get DHCP scope configuration

Get-DhcpServerv4Scope –ComputerName <DHCPServerName>

Get DHCP reservations on scope:

Get-DhcpServerv4Reservation -ComputerName <DHCPServerName> -ScopeId <ScopeID>

Import/Export DHCP Scopes

netsh dhcp server export C:\temp\DHCP.txt all
netsh dhcp server import C:\temp\DHCP.txt all

Note: The temp folder needs to be created

Check DHCP Replication Failover Status

Get-DhcpServerv4Failover -ComputerName <DHCPServerName>

Reference:
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj590708(v=wps.630).aspx

Windows | Remote Management “Could not start Virtual Disk Service (VDS)”

To avoid this error when you remotely managing another servers virtual disks (From “Server Management” you need to follow some steps

Disk Management could not start Virtual Disk Service (VDS) on SERVER-NAME. This can happen if the remote computer does not support VDS, or if a connection cannot be established because it was blocked by Windows Firewall.

For additional information about diagnosing and correcting this problem, see Troubleshooting Disk Management in Disk Management Help.

Step1: 

Check Virtual Disk Service is started on BOTH the local and remote system

Powershell:

Start-Service -Name "vds"

CMD:

net start vds

Step2: 

Add firewall exceptions on BOTH the local and remote system. VOILA! WORKING WITHOUT ANY ERRORS 🙂

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="Remote Volume Management" new enable=yes

Step3: 

Use “Server Manager” to connect remotely and access the disk management properties on the remote machine.

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Windows | System “Recovery Partition” After Upgrade

After a Windows 10 or Windows Server (2016/2019) upgrade a new system “recovery partition” gets created at the tailend of the C:\ this isn’t usually a problem for physical machines but for VM it can cause some issues if you wish to “extend” the VDMK/Partition size.

You can quickly remove the partition using “diskpart” and continue your extend. From what I’ve seen this shouldn’t cause any major issues. To be honest we rarely use any of the Windows features for restores as snapshot and backup usually fix them.

diskpart
list disk 
select disk X
list partition 
select partition X
delete partition override

Before:

After:

Windows Dedup | Cheat Sheet

Get dedup status:

Get-DedupStatus

Get dedup status formatted & additional info:

Get-DedupStatus | fl

Get dedup status for specified volumes:

Get-DedupStatus -Volume "D:","F:"

Show Dedup Metadata (How deduplication is being used) on the server:

Get-Dedupmetadata

Show Dedup Metadata for specified volumes:

Get-Dedupmetadata D:

Enable Dedup Job:

Start-DedupJob D: -Type Optimization -Full

Disable Dedup Job:

Start-DedupJob -Type Unoptimization -Volume <Desired-Volume>

Ref: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/storage/data-deduplication/whats-new

Windows Default Account Picture Logo Image | Server 2019 vs 2012/2016

Quickest way to customise the Windows logon logo/image/icon is to drop the images in this hidden folder. Images are in bmp and png format.

C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\User Account Pictures

Note: There are some subtle differences between Windows Server 2012 R2 & Server 2019

  1. Windows Server 2019 (doesn’t apply to 2016) has a symbolic link as the folder is actually called “Default Account Pictures” which redirects to “User Account Pictures”
  2. Windows Server 2019 appears to have some additional images with different sizes to Server 2012 & 2016
  • user-32.png
  • user-48.png
  • user-192.png
  • REMOVED user-200.png

Server 2012 R2

Server 2019

The icons can be set using “group policy preferences” and copying images over from a share.

 

Remove “Windows.old” using Cleanmgr CLI | Windows 10

PowerShell Script for removing the “Windows.old” folder using cleanmgr.exe command line

New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\VolumeCaches\Temporary Setup Files' -PropertyType 'DWORD' -Force -Name 'StateFlags1337' -Value 0x2
New-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\VolumeCaches\Previous Installations' -PropertyType 'DWORD' -Force -Name 'StateFlags1337' -Value 0x2
cleanmgr.exe /SAGERUN:1337

Great post on the syntax of “Cleanmgr.exe”

https://winaero.com/blog/cleanmgr-exe-command-line-arguments-in-windows-10/ 

Migrate Folder Shares | PowerShell

Basic objective, we’ve got a ton of shares which we need to move to a new server. The data has already been replicated but we need to re-share.
There are methods of doing this by exporting the registry but being a little scared of messing up the current shares and requiring a reboot I decided to do this manually…

Export list of shares on source server:

get-WmiObject -class Win32_Share -computer servername.fqdn.com | Export-Csv -Path "C:\Shares.csv"

Create shares on destination server:

Powershell:

Need the powershell command here

CMD Net Share

net share "ShareName"="D:\Path\FolderName" /grant:everyone,FULL

Reference:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/microsoft.powershell.utility/export-csv?view=powershell-6
https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/Creates-New-Share-with-fb22d905
http://www.tomsitpro.com/articles/use-fileshare-powershell-cmdlets-server-2016,2-1053.html

SQL Firewall Rules | PowerShell

Add Windows Firewall exclusions for Microsoft SQL using PowerShell

Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned
#Enabling SQL Server Ports
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Server” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 1433 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Admin Connection” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 1434 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Database Management” -Direction Inbound –Protocol UDP –LocalPort 1434 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Service Broker” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 4022 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Debugger/RPC” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 135 -Action allow
#Enabling SQL Analysis Ports
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Analysis Services” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 2383 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Browser” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 2382 -Action allow
#Enabling Misc. Applications
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “HTTP” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 80 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SSL” -Direction Inbound –Protocol TCP –LocalPort 443 -Action allow
New-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName “SQL Server Browse Button Service” -Direction Inbound –Protocol UDP –LocalPort 1433 -Action allow
#Enable Windows Firewall
Set-NetFirewallProfile -DefaultInboundAction Block -DefaultOutboundAction Allow -NotifyOnListen True -AllowUnicastResponseToMulticast True

Windows Server 2016 | Remove WSUS (Completely)

Trying to completely remove WSUS isn’t as straight forward as uninstalling the role.
These steps are based on WSUS using the WID database (Not SQL)

In Summary:

  • Remove Windows Update Servers (WSUS) role & Windows Internal Database (WID)
  • Remove WSUS cache & Update Services directories
  • Remove WSUS website in IIS
  • Reboot

PowerShell:

Uninstall-WindowsFeature -Name UpdateServices,Windows-Internal-Database
Remove-Item –path D:\WSUS, C:\Windows\WID –recurse
Remove-Item –path C:\Users\MSSQL$MICROSOFT##WID
Remove-Item –path C:\Scripts, C:\Temp –recurse

Remove-Item –path C:\Program Files\Update Services –recurse 

Remove-WebSite -Name "WSUS Administration"
Restart-Computer

References: ServerFault

DFS | DFSR Removal of Staging Directory

After removing DFS shares on a server there may be some leftover files in the “DFSR” cache, this is a hidden location within the “System Volume Information”. This can be tricky one to delete but can be completed using some CLI.

Take Ownership of folder

icacls "e:\system volume information" /grant Administrator:F

Remove Directory (Silent & whole directory tree)

rd "e:\system volume information\dfsr" /s /q

Windows 7/10 | Remotely logoff user (Instantly)

Useful in the event of having to log someone off remotely. (i.e. if a users AD account has been disabled and you want to prevent them from using the system urgently)

You must have local administrator access to complete this. This process will logoff the user instantly.

Run CMD (As Administrator)
Obtain the session ID:

quser /server:COMPUTERNAMEHERE

Logoff session ID:

logoff ID /server:COMPUTERNAMEHERE

Example

Creating AD Trust Relationship

Ports required for trust relationship:

  • 389 (TCP and UDP) – Directory, Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts – LDAP
  • 636 (TCP) – Directory, Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts – LDAP SSL
  • 3268 (TCP) – Directory, Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts – LDAP GC
  • 3269 (TCP) – Directory, Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts – LDAP GC SSL
  • 88 (TCP and UDP) – User and Computer Authentication, Forest Level Trusts – Kerberos
  • 53 (TCP and UDP) – User and Computer Authentication, Name Resolution, Trusts – DNS
  • 445 (TCP and UDP) – Replication, User and Computer Authentication, Group Policy, Trusts – SMB,CIFS,SMB2, DFSN, LSARPC, NbtSS, NetLogonR, SamR, SrvSvc

Reference:

  • https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd772723(v=ws.10).aspx
    https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/179442/how-to-configure-a-firewall-for-domains-and-trusts

Windows 7 | Delete Offline File Cache CSC Folder

After carrying out a domain migration on a PC the “offline files cache” still retains a local cache for the previous domain.

Within “Offline Files” (Control Panel) there is an option to “Delete temporary files” but this does not remove the “All offline files” cache located in the “C:\Windows\CSC” folder

The workaround to fully remove these files (and start a new offline sync) is to add the “FormatDatabase” registry entry which forces deletion.

This command will add the registry entry. After which reboot the system and all offline files will be removed:

reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\CSC\Parameters /v FormatDatabase /t REG_DWORD /d 1

DFS | Site Links, Server Target Prioritization & Reference Info

DFS Setup and Configuration Notes

I like DFS, the main issue I found is setting it up, tailoring it to your needs, debugging and configuring which can be a bit troublesome. I’ve spent a while trying to implement and tweak it for a large scale network (17 x Sites using DFS-N & DFS-R) I’ve list a number of articles/URLs which have proven useful on my DFS internet travels…


Continue reading

Remove Sharepoint Login Prompt in IE

We have a company SharePoint site which requires authentication information before logging on. This is a pain as the information displayed on the initial screen of SharePoint does not need to be restricted (Company Intranet).

Login “Annoying” Prompt:

In order to remove this you can modify the option in I.E. to use local logon credential (domain PCs):

  1. Tools/Internet Options/Security/Local Intranet/Sites
  2. Add the site in the list, click OK.
  3. Still in Local Intranet, click on “Custom Level”, scroll all the way to the bottom to User Authentication/Logon
  4. Click on “Automatic Logon with current user name and password”
  5. When the user logs to the site, make sure to select the checkmark “remember username/password” when the site asks for credentials